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Alternative metrics (altmetrics)

Altmetrics are alternative ways of recording and measuring the use and impact of scholarship. Rather than solely counting the number of times a work is cited in scholarly literature, alternative metrics also measure and analyze social media (e.g., Facebook, Twitter, blogs, wikis, etc.), document downloads, links to publishing and unpublished research, and other uses of research literature, in order to provide a more comprehensive measurement of scholarship’s reach and impact. See also "impact factor."

Article processing charges (APCs)

A fee charged to the author, creator, or institution to cover the cost of an article, rather than charging the potential reader of the article. APCs may apply to both commercial and Open Access publications. APCs are sometimes charged to authors in order to cover the cost of publishing and disseminating an article in an Open Access scholarly journal. (Source: Open Access Oxford

Author addendum

An author addendum is a supplemental or added agreement to a publishing contract that defines or changes the terms of the contract, often focusing on the transfer of copyright ownership. For authors of scholarly works, an author addendum to a publisher’s standard publication contract may be necessary to help ensure that authors protect important rights, such as the right to post their articles online to a personal website or in a digital repository; the right to use their works within a classroom setting; or the right to use their works as the foundation for future research. (Source: Association of College and Research Libraries and Open Access Directory)

Author fees

An Open Access business model that charges authors a publication fee in order to cover the expenses of publication (peer review, journal production, online hosting, and archiving) in order to provide free access to readers. See also “Gold OA.” (Source: PLoS)

Author self-archiving

To self-archive is to deposit a digital document or object in an online repository, ideally one that is publicly accessible. Depositing involves creating ”metadata” (date, author-name, title, journal publication name, and other information) about the work, then attaching the document or object described. The depositor uses a web interface to describe and archive the work. (Source: -

Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities

The Berlin Declaration is a major international statement on Open Access and access to knowledge. Created at a meeting in Berlin, Germany, in 2003, it is considered one of the milestones of the Open Access movement (see also Budapest-Bethesda-Berlin). This declaration

  • States that the Internet has fundamentally changed “the practical and economic realities of distributing scientific knowledge and cultural heritage”
  • Calls for support of Open Access to knowledge and cultural heritage
  • Defines what Open Access contributions should consist of
  • Recommends the depositing of a complete version of the work and all supplemental materials in electronic format in an online repository
  • Calls for researchers, grant recipients, and cultural heritage organizations to support Open Access to their works
  • Advocates for the development of methods to maintain quality and good scientific practice for Open Access publications
  • Recommends the consideration of Open Access publications in promotion and tenure evaluation

(Source: Open

Berne Convention

The International Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, known as the Berne Convention, formed a union among several nations (Berne Copyright Union) that reached agreement on copyright laws. This is an international agreement wherein member countries guarantee the protections of rights granted to its own nationals to creators who originally published in a different country. This includes translations, reproductions, and term of copyright, among other protections. (Source: Encyclopedia Britannica


Bibliometrics is the branch of library and information science concerned with the application of mathematical and statistical analysis to bibliography. Bibliometrics involves the statistical analysis of books, articles, or other publications. See also "alternative metrics (altmetrics)." (Source: OED Online)


A term sometimes used as a synonym for “trademark." In commerce, brand is used to refer to a combination of tangible and intangible elements (such as trademark, design, logo, etc.) and the concept, image, and reputation that those elements convey about specified products and/or services. (Source: WIPO)

Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI)

In 2001, the Open Society Institute (OSI) held a meeting in Budapest, Hungary, to foster progress in making research articles in all academic fields freely available on the Internet. Those gathered produced the Budapest Open Access Initiative Declaration, one of the major milestones of the Open Access movement. (See also Budapest-Bethesda-Berlin (BBB).) The BOAI Declaration states that scholarly literature from all disciplines should be openly and freely accessible in order to disseminate to and have an impact on the world. The declaration states that scholarly journal literature can be made openly accessible through self-archiving by scholars and by scholars publishing in Open Access journals. (Source: Budapest Open Access Initiative

Budapest-Bethesda-Berlin (BBB or “the 3 Bs”)

Shorthand for the three major, early declarations that helped define the scope and direction of Open Access, which urged various entities to use and promote Open Access.  See also: Budapest Open Access Initiative, Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities, and Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing. (Source: SPARC Open Access Newsletter, issue #77

CC BY (Creative Commons Attribution License)

A Creative Commons license that allows others to distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon a work, even commercially, as long as they credit (attribute) the creator of the work. Creative Commons licenses implicitly grant permission for use of content based on license terms without need for the user to contact the creator first, as one would otherwise need to do for a work protected by copyright, where all rights have been reserved by the creator.  It is one of the most open of the Creative Commons licenses for dissemination and use of materials. (Source: Creative Commons

CC BY-NC (Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial License)

This Creative Commons license allows for remixes, adjustments, and derivative works, but subsequent works cannot be distributed commercially. Works must also credit (attribute) the original creator/license-holder. (Source: Creative Commons

CC BY-NC-ND (Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-No Derivatives License)

This Creative Commons license allows for the distribution and sharing of works, but no derivatives can be made, the work cannot be used commercially, and the creator/license-holder must be credited (attribution). This license is considered the most restrictive of the Creative Commons licenses.  (Source: Creative Commons

CC BY-NC-SA (Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-Share-Alike License)

This Creative Commons license allows derivatives, remixes, or adjustments to the work, but the license for the new works made must be identical to the original. The creator/license-holder must get credit (attribution) for the work. (Source: Creative Commons

CC BY-ND (Creative Commons Attribution-No Derivatives License)

This Creative Commons license does not allow for the changing, adjusting, or remixing of the original work; it also requires credit (attribution) to be given to the creator/license-holder. (Source: Creative Commons

CC BY-SA (Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License)

This Creative Commons license allows derivative works of the original to be made, but the license for the new work created must be the same as the original. In other words, any derivative made must also have a CC BY-SA license: The creator of the derivative work cannot prevent subsequent users from creating derivatives; the creator of the derivative work cannot limit the use of the new work for only non-commercial purposes. Credit (attribution) must also be given to the original creator/license-holder.  (Source: Creative Commons

CC0 (Creative Commons No Rights Reserved)

Also known as “No Rights Reserved,” CC0 is a Creative Commons license through which scientists, educators, artists, writers, and other creators and owners of copyright- and database-protected works can  waive their rights to their works and place them in the public domain, allowing others to freely build upon, enhance, and reuse the works for any purposes without restriction under copyright or database law. (Source: Creative Commons    


A set of exclusive rights awarded to a copyright holder for an original and creative work of authorship fixed in a tangible medium of expression. Copyright is a limited statutory monopoly that gives a copyright holder the sole right to market a work for a limited period of time. Copyright also includes exemptions that permit a user of the copyright-protected work the right to exercise an exclusive right without authorization or royalty payment under certain conditions. (Source: U.S. Copyright Office - http://www.copyright/gov/help/faq/faq-general.html/#what)

Copyright includes literary and artistic works, such as novels, poems, plays, and films; musical works; artistic works, such as drawings, paintings, photographs, and sculptures; and architectural designs. Rights related to copyright include those of performing artists in their performances, producers of phonograms in their recordings, and those of broadcasters in their radio and television programs (Source: U.S. Copyright Office - http://www.copyright/gov/help/faq/faq-general.html/#what)

Creative Commons

A non-profit organization that promotes the creative reuse of intellectual works, whether owned or in the public domain, through the use of licenses that define the rights copyright holders choose to retain and those uses that may be made of copyrighted works without the prior permission of the copyright holder. (Source: Complete Copyright)

Creative Commons is also defined as a set of copyright licenses and tools that allow authors a standardized way to keep their copyright while allowing certain uses of their work, i.e., a “some rights reserved” approach to copyright, rather than “all rights reserved.” (Source: Creative Commons)

Data mining

The process of extracting useful information from online collections or data in order to select, analyze, and organize the data. There are many ways to perform data mining, but almost all methods involve automated ways to find all types and sizes of content in order to aid its extraction. (Source: Elsevier


A collection of interrelated data, usually presented in tabular form. Often these data can be studied, mined, or otherwise manipulated by use of a computer. See also "Open Data."

Derivative or derivative works

A work based upon one or more preexisting works, such as a translation, musical arrangement, dramatization, fictionalization, motion picture version, sound recording, art reproduction, abridgment, condensation, or any other form in which a work may be recast, transformed, or adapted. "A work consisting of editorial revisions, annotations, elaborations, or other modifications . . . is a derivative work.” (Source: U.S. Copyright Law, Title 17, Section 101)

Digital humanities

Digital humanities is an interdisciplinary field of study that focuses on the social and cultural aspects of technology and media. This field reflects the importance of digital technologies in humanities research and often requires communication between technologists and the humanities. Digital humanities requires creation and application of technologies to answer cultural and social questions. (Source: UCLA, University of Oxford

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) of 1998

An amendment to U.S. copyright law, passed in 1998, that sought to address copyright concerns in the digital environment. (Source: Complete Copyright)

Among its many provisions, the DMCA prohibited the circumvention of digital rights management (DRM) technologies that control access to copyrighted works. Additionally, the DMCA implemented two 1996 World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) treaties: The WIPO Copyright Treaty and the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty. (Source: Digital Millennium Copyright Act Summary

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

A persistent alphanumeric identifier given to digital objects, commonly articles in scholarly journals, that ensures access to the object regardless of changes to its location (e.g., URL) or metadata. (Source: DOI -

Digital repository

A type of content management system that stores, manages, and preserves digital content so that it can later be searched and retrieved, in order to support research and learning. A digital repository can be subject- or institution-specific. (Source:

Digital Rights Management

Also known as DRM, this class of technologies is used to track, limit, and control uses of digital items. The goal for DRM technologies is to prevent copyright infringement of digital content, restricting the ability to make copies of the content, and making it difficult for DRM-protected content to be shared over computer or telecommunication networks. (Source: Encyclopedia Britannica

Digital scholarship

Digital scholarship is a broad term referring to the use of technologies in the digital world for scholarly activities, like research, communication, and writing. Some examples of digital scholarship would include the sharing of scholarly information over social media or social networking like Twitter, Tumblr, Mendeley, or Zotero; making scholarly materials available through institutional repositories (like D-Scholarship@Pitt); and using computational technologies and coding to conduct research processes, such as text mining.

Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)

A comprehensive online directory of Open Access scientific and scholarly journals. The directory aims to increase the visibility and ease of use of Open Access journals, thereby promoting their increased usage and impact. (Source: Directory of Open Access Journals -

As of 2014, the DOAJ put in place a new application process in order to limit the scope of the directory listings to "quality open access, peer-reviewed journals." (Source: DOAJ)


A dissertation is usually a requirement of PhD or doctoral students (at least in the United States). It is a large research paper that both demonstrates knowledge of the field as well as contributes something new and undiscovered or original knowledge. (Source: Campus Explorer:


In the context of Open Access, double-dipping occurs when a journal has an article processing charge (APC) for publishing an author’s work, as well as requiring payment (usually through a subscription fee) by the potential user of the work. This model makes the institution or author pay twice to access the work. (Source: Open Access Oxford


The Eigenfactor Score measures the number of times articles from a journal published in the past five years have been cited in a Journal Citation Reports year.

Like the Journal Impact Factor, the Eigenfactor Score is a ratio of the number of citations to the total number of articles. Unlike the Impact Factor, the Eigenfactor counts citations in both the sciences and social sciences; eliminates self-citations; weights each reference according to a stochastic measure of the amount of time researchers spend reading the journal.

The Eigenfactor uses citation data from Thomson Reuters (ISI Web of Knowledge). The Eigenfactor developed from the Metrics Eigenfactor Project in 2008, a bibliometric research project conducted by Professor Carl Berstrom and his laboratory at the University of Washington.

See also "journal impact factor."

Electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs)

An electronic thesis or dissertation that can be accessed via the Internet in full or partial text. Many ETDs are published under Open Access principles. (Source: Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations [NDLTD] -

Fair use

A concept defined in section 107 of the U.S. Copyright Law that allows a user to exercise an exclusive right in certain circumstances without the prior authorization of the copyright holder and without paying a royalty or permission fee. Use of copyrighted materials in face-to-face teaching in classroom settings, such as readings or displays, is an example of fair use. (Source: Complete Copyright)

You can find out more about fair use of copyrighted works in the Copyright FAQ:

Finch Report

On June 18, 2012, the Working Group on Expanding Access to Published Research Findings in the United Kingdom published Accessibility, sustainability, excellence: How to expand access to research publication, better known as the Finch Report due to the name of the working group's chair, Dame Janet Finch. This report recommended a program of action to enable easier and faster public access to the peer-reviewed, published results of research. While detailing many approaches to Open Access, the recommendation for Gold Open Access publishing is typically highlighted. (Source: Research Information Network:

Geographical indications of source

Names of places that are applied to particular products (for example, Champagne, Asiago cheese, Vidalia onions, etc. ). Those products have characteristics closely identified with their geographical place of origin. (Source: WIPO -

Gold Open Access (Gold OA)

Open Access journals that are available to their readers free-of-charge from the moment of publication, without embargo or restriction. Authors may or may not pay (see “author fee”) to have their articles published in Gold OA journals. (Source: Sherpa -

Gratis Open Access or Gratis OA

Gratis OA is Open Access that is free of price barriers but not permission barriers, so it allows for free online access to works but not reuse, republication, or remixing of the original work.  Also known as “Weak” Open Access. (Source: SPARC

Green Open Access (Green OA)

In Green OA, Open Access takes place at the repository level, with journal or publisher policy allowing authors to archive pre-print and post-print versions of their articles. (Source: SHERPA

Contrast with "Gold OA" where journals provide Open Access to articles at the moment of publication.

Hybrid journal

Some traditional journals offer an option for authors to make their individual articles freely accessible to anyone worldwide, for an additional fee. Other articles in the journal remain accessible only through subscription. Such journals are known as "hybrid journals." (Source: Scholarly Publishing at MIT Libraries –

Impact factor

Also known as "journal impact factor" or "JIF," the impact factor is the average number of times articles from a scholarly journal published in the past two years have been cited in the work, Journal Citation Reports (JCR). (Source: Pitt Research Guides -

Also, more generally, any estimate or statistics derived from citations that indicate the importance or popularity of a scholarly journal. See also "Alternative metrics."

Industrial design

An industrial design constitutes the ornamental or aesthetic aspect of an item. Industrial design may include three-dimensional (3-D) features, such as the shape or surface of the item, or two-dimensional (2-D) features, such as patterns, lines, or colors. (Source: WIPO

Industrial property

Intellectual property that includes inventions, patents, trademarks, industrial designs, and geographical indications of source. (Source: WIPO:

Copyright is a form of intellectual property separate from industrial property.

Institutional repository

An online database or archive that provides access to digital collections, such as electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs), pre-prints, or faculty scholarship, and presents associated metadata regarding the these items. Also, a digital repository designed to collect the intellectual output of a particular institution or university. (Source: NDLTD -

Intellectual property

Intellectual property refers to any intellectual creation, such as literary works, artistic works, inventions, designs, symbols, names, images, computer code, etc. Intellectual property law exists in order to protect the creators and covers areas of copyright, trademark law, and patents. (Source: The Free Dictionary

You can find answers to common questions about intellectual property that have been asked at the University of Pittsburgh in this information guide created by the university's Office of General Counsel:

Journal Impact Factor (JIF)

Also known simply as "impact factor," the Journal Impact Factor is a measure of the average number of times articles from a scholarly journal published in the past two years have been cited in the work, Journal Citation Reports (JCR). (Source: Pitt Research Guides -

Also, more generally, the impact factor is any estimate or statistics derived from citations that indicate the importance or popularity of a scholarly journal. See also "Alternative metrics."

Library-based publishing

Many academic libraries are now beginning to act as publishers for scholarly works produced in their institutions and elsewhere.  In some cases, the library works with the university scholarly press to publish works. In other cases, the library publishes works independently or separately from the academic press. This practice has come about due to the popularity of the Internet, social media, and the Open Source and Open Access movements.  (Source: Library Publishing Coalition

Libre Open Access or Libre OA

“Strong OA” free of (at least some) permission barriers as well as price barriers to Open Access content.  (Source: SPARC Libre OA allows for further reuse, republication, and remix rights that are not allowed with Gratis OA. (Source: Eprints


A graphic representation or symbol of a company name, trademark, abbreviation, etc., often uniquely designed for ready recognition. (Source:


A handwritten or typed document, an unpublished document, or an author’s draft of a book, article, or other work submitted for publication. (Source: Society of American Archivists glossary -


Data about data, i.e., information (or data) used to describe other information or data. Metadata is used to describe and provide access to information resources, especially Internet sites, electronic documents, and digital objects. (Source: LibrarySpeak)

Metadata harvesting

The collecting of metadata from a digital object, collection, or repository. The harvested metadata is then made available in a searchable databank, data store, or data repository. The digital objects themselves are not harvested; rather, the information or data about the digital objects is collected and made searchable.  This process is used by the Open Archives Initiative and is required under the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH). (Source: Open Archives Forum Glossary

National Institutes of Health (NIH) Public Access Policy

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Public Access Policy ensures that the public has access to the published results of NIH-funded research. It requires scientists to submit final peer-reviewed journal manuscripts that arise from NIH funds to the digital archive, PubMed Central. The Policy requires that these final peer-reviewed manuscripts be accessible to the public on PubMed Central to help advance science and improve human health. (Source: National Institutes of Health -

Open Access (OA)

The term Open Access is used to describe a family of copyright licensing policies under which copyright owners make their works available publicly, without access being limited to subscribers or purchasers of the works, and typically in online databases. Disseminating information or publishing under Open Access principles means that access to the results of research is provided freely, immediately, and digitally, as is the right to use and re-use those results as needed. (Source: Pitt Open Access

Open Archives Initiative (OAI)

Supplies a common framework to web communities that allows them to gain access to content in a standard manner by means of metadata harvesting. (Source: Open Archives Initiative

Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH)

OAI-PMH provides a relatively standardized method for harvesting information (metadata) about digital objects, collections, or repositories. This protocol is used in order to facilitate interoperability and metadata sharing between repositories. Creators of digital objects or collections use this mechanism to provide information or data about their repositories to others. These other entities then employ the protocol to harvest metadata about digital objects and collections.   (Source: Open Archives Initiative

Open data

Data that is free for anyone to use, reuse, and redistribute, subject only to (at most) the requirement to attribute and share-alike. (Source:

Open educational resources (OERs)

Open educational resources (OERs) are teaching and learning materials that are shared online and made freely available for anyone to use or even adapt and reuse. Quizzes, assignments, games, and syllabi are just some examples of the OERs. Many OERs are shared under Creative Commons licenses. (Source: OER Commons Wiki -

Open peer review

In open peer review, the reviewers of scholarly manuscripts are known and not anonymous. Their reviews may be signed reviews and are be posted on the Internet, along side of the scholarship being reviewed. This type of peer review aims to make the review process more transparent and to eliminate some of the issues and drawbacks of anonymous reviewers found in other peer review processes.

(Source: P2P Foundation -

Open source

A social movement, begun by computer programmers, that rejects secrecy and centralized control of creative work in favor of decentralization, transparency, and unrestricted (“open”) sharing of information. "Source" refers to the human-readable source code of computer programs, as opposed to the compiled computer programming language instructions, or object code, that run on computers but cannot be easily understood or modified by people. Compare with Open Access. (Source: Encyclopedia Britannica

The term "open source" is often used to describe computer software and information systems created under the principles of this movement.


A project to list and categorize academic Open Access digital repositories. The aim is to provide a comprehensive and authoritative list of such repositories for users who wish to find particular archives or who wish to break down repositories by locale, content, or other measures. (Source: OpenDOAR -


The exclusive right granted by a government to an inventor to manufacture, use, or sell an invention for a certain number of years; the official document conferring this right or privilege. (Source: - ; Merriam-Webster Dictionary -


A paywall is a financial barrier that an information provider (such as a publisher) places to restrict access and acquire revenue from an information user. When access to a website, article, or information is restricted to users who pay or subscribe to the distributor or provider of the work needed, and those who do not pay or subscribe are barred from using the resource, the user has encountered a paywall. (Source: Oxford Dictionary

Peer review

Also known as “refereed,” peer review is the process by which scholars in a relevant field read and evaluate papers submitted to a journal. (Source: Oxford English Dictionary

Peer review is employed by a profession or discipline in order to maintain standards, improve performance, and provide credibility. In academia, peer review is often used to determine a scholarly work’s suitability for publication.


Post-prints are post-publication reproductions or copies of articles that may or may not differ in appearance from the published article. Publishers often reserve for published articles their own arrangement of typesetting and formatting. Thus, often authors cannot use the publisher-generated PDF file but must make or use their own PDF version for submission to a digital or institutional repository. (Source: SHERPA|&mode=simple#userdiffs)


In the context of Open Access, a pre-print is a draft of an academic article or other publication before it has been submitted for peer review or other quality assurance procedures as part of the publication process. Initial and successive drafts of articles, working papers, or draft conference papers constitute pre-prints. (Source: SHERPA|&mode=simple#userdiffs)

Predatory publisher

Predatory publishers are those who publish articles in exchange for fees, exploiting the Gold Open Access model by using vanity presses. These publishers tend to lack transparency in their operations and misrepresent information about peer review, location, credibility, editorial board, and anything else having to do with the publishing process. (Source: Chronicle of Higher Education -

Public display

A display of a work before a group larger than a family or small group of friends or in a place open to the public. (Source: Complete Copyright)

Public Domain

Works in the public domain are those that are not restricted by copyright [link to definition] and can be freely used and distributed without knowledge or permission from the copyright holder.  Public domain works consist of works whose copyright has expired, works designated as public domain by their creators, and many works produced by the U.S. government. (Source: Complete Copyright)

Public performance

Performance before a group larger than a family or small group of friends or in a place open to the public. (Source: Complete Copyright)

According to the U.S. copyright law (Title 17, United States Code, Section 110), a public performance is any screening of a videocassette, DVD, videodisc, or film which occurs outside of the home, or at any place where people are gathered who are not family members, such as in a library. Even if no admission is charged or if the screening is in a nonprofit organization or library, a public performance license is needed to show a film. (Source: Colorado State Library

Public performance license (Public performance rights)

Any time you plan to show a film to the public—irrespective of the film’s format or whether or not you are charging admission—you must first seek permission to do so from the film’s copyright holder(s). This permission comes in the form of a license from the rights holder called a PPR (Public Performance Rights) license. (Source: MIT LibGuides – Showing Media Outside Classes (PPR)

You can find out more about public performance rights and showing films in- and outside the classroom in the Copyright FAQ - Educational Use:


PubMed is a free search engine that uses the MEDLINE database of citations to medical research literature. PubMed is maintained by the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM), the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). PubMed provides citations and some links to full-text content from PubMed Central and other publisher websites. (Source: PubMed -

PubMed Central

Part of the U.S. National Institute of Health’s National Library of Medicine, PubMed Central is an online archive of life sciences and biomedical journals that is freely accessible due to the NIH Public Access Policy. This policy requires scientists to submit final peer-reviewed journal manuscripts that arise from NIH-funded projects to PubMed Central. These final peer-reviewed manuscripts are made accessible to the public via PubMed Central to help advance science and improve human health.  (Source:

Quality control

In journal publishing, quality control refers to the peer-review process or other means of exerting editorial quality and validity of research articles. (Source: Directory of Open Access Journals


Also known as “peer review,” this is the process by which scholars read and evaluate papers submitted for publication (e.g., to a scholarly journal) or presentation (e.g., to a scholarly conference). (Source: Oxford English Dictionary  Refereeing is employed by a profession or discipline in order to maintain standards, improve performance, and provide credibility. In academia, peer review is often used to determine a scholarly work’s suitability for publication.

Scholarly articles

Articles that describe the results of research and that authors give to the world for the sake of inquiry and knowledge without expectation of payment. Such articles are typically presented in peer-reviewed scholarly journals and conference proceedings. (Source: Scholarly Publishing @ MIT Libraries -

Scholarly communication

The creation, transformation, dissemination, and preservation of knowledge related to teaching, research, and scholarly endeavors; the process of academics, scholars and researchers sharing and publishing their research findings so that they are available to the wider academic community. (Source: Wikipedia

Traditionally, scholarly communication has been done through publishing in scholarly journals, writing books, and presenting at scholarly conferences. Nowadays, scholarly communication happens through these means as well as through blogs, wikis, social media, discussion forums, audio and video recordings, digital projects, and other media.

Scholarly journal

A journal that reports primary results of research or overviews of research results to a scholarly community. (Source: Directory of Open Access Journals

Service mark

A distinctive sign that identifies certain products or services as those produced or provided by a specific person, enterprise, or a group of persons/enterprises, allowing the consumer to distinguish them from the goods or services of others. (Source: WIPO


This is a term used in Creative Commons [link to definition] licensing in which the creator or license-holder permits derivative works to be made, but the derivative must adhere to the same licensing terms as the original work. For example, a work licensed as CC BY- SA [link to definition] would mean that others could remix, tweak, and build upon the original work, as long as they credit the creator and license their new creations under the identical terms. (Source: Creative Commons


RoMEO is a database created by the University of Nottingham, UK, that provides information on publisher’s copyright and author self-archiving policies, particularly as they relate to web and Open Access repositories. (Source: RoMEO FAQ:|&mode=simple)  RoMEO is a service of SHERPA (Securing a Hybrid Environment for Research Preservation and Access), also headquartered at the University of Nottingham, which is tasked with investigating issues in scholarly communication.  (Source: SHERPA:

Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998

An amendment to the U.S. Copyright Law that extended the term of copyright protection by twenty years (Source: Complete Copyright).

This means that the term of copyright extends to the life of the author plus 70 years for individual authors and 95 years for corporate authors or creators. The amendment applies to all works under copyright on the bill’s effective data, as well as to all future works. (Source: American Library Association -

Strong Open Access

“Strong” Open Access (also known as Libre Open Access) is a term used to refer to the removal of price barriers and at least some permission barriers to a work. Compare with “Weak” Open Access. (Source: Peter Suber

TEACH Act (Technology, Education and Copyright Harmonization Act)

TEACH redefines the terms and conditions on which accredited, nonprofit educational institutions throughout the U.S. may use copyright-protected materials in distance education – including on websites and by other digital means – without permission from the copyright owner and without payment of royalties. (Source: American Library Association -


A thesis is a research paper that demonstrates a level of critical and analytical thinking on a subject of interest in the field of study. Length of a thesis differs by subject and institution, but in the United States, it is generally a requirement of those obtaining a master’s degree.  (Source: Campus Explorer:

Trade secrets

A trade secret is a form of intellectual property that protects company “know-how,” such as the process or recipe used to create or manufacture a product.  Intellectual property law protects a trade secret from competitors. For example, the formula for the soft drink Pepsi constitutes a trade secret. (Source: Complete Copyright)


A trademark is a sign (such as a logo, brand, or other mark) capable of distinguishing the goods or services of one enterprise from those of other enterprises. Trademarks are protected by intellectual property rights. (Source: WIPO -

Weak Open Access

“Weak” Open Access (also known as Gratis Open Access), is a term used to refer to the removal of price barriers to a work. Compare with “Strong” Open Access. (Source: Peter Suber


The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is an organization that works toward the development of an effective international intellectual property (IP) system.  It is an agency of the United Nations. WIPO aims to harmonize IP legislation among member countries, engages in international IP agreements, promotes services to protect IP internationally, and resolve international IP disputes, among other efforts.  (Source: WIPO