Alternative ways of measuring the use of, and impact of, scholarship. Rather than solely measuring the number of times a work is cited in scholarly literature, alternative metrics also measure and analyze social media (e.g., Facebook, Twitter, blogs, wikis, etc.) to provide a more comprehensive measurement of scholarship’s reach and impact. See also “impact factor.”
A fee charged to the author, creator, or institution to cover the cost of an article, rather than charging the potential reader of the article. APCs may apply to both commercial and Open Access publications. APCs are sometimes charged to authors in order to cover the cost of publishing and disseminating an article in an Open Access scholarly journal. (Source: Open Access Oxford http://openaccess.ox.ac.uk/glossary/)
A contract addendum is a supplemental or added agreement that defines or changes the terms of the contract. For authors of scholarly works, an author addendum to a publisher’s standard publication contract may be necessary to help ensure that authors protect important rights such as the right to post their articles online to their own website or in a digital repository; the right to use their work within a classroom setting; or the right to use their own work as the foundation for future research. (Source: ACRL)
An Open Access business model that charges authors a publication fee in order to cover the expenses of publication (peer review, journal production, online hosting, and archiving) in order to provide free access to readers. (Source: PLoS). See also “Gold OA.”
To self-archive is to deposit a digital document or item in an online repository, ideally one that is publicly accessible. Depositing involves creating ”metadata” (date, author-name, title, journal publication name, and other information) about the work, then attaching the document or item described. The depositor uses a web interface to describe and archive the work. (Source: Eprints.org)
The Berlin Declaration is a major international statement on Open Access and access to knowledge. Created at a meeting in Berlin, Germany, in 2003, it is considered one of the milestones of the Open Access movement (see also Budapest-Bethesda-Berlin). This declaration
- States that the Internet has fundamentally changed “the practical and economic realities of distributing scientific knowledge and cultural heritage”
- Calls for support of Open Access to knowledge and cultural heritage
- Defines what Open Access contributions should consist of
- Recommends the depositing of a complete version of the work and all supplemental materials in electronic format in an online repository
- Calls for researchers, grant recipients, and cultural heritage organizations to support Open Access to their works
- Advocates for the development of methods to maintain quality and good scientific practice for Open Access publications
- Recommends the consideration of Open Access publications in promotion and tenure evaluation
(Source: Open Access.de http://openaccess.mpg.de/286432/Berlin-Declaration)
A term sometimes used as a synonym for a “trademark.” In commercial circles, this term is used to refer to a combination of tangible and intangible elements (such as a trademark, design, logo, etc.) and the concept, image, and reputation that those elements convey about specified products and/or services. (Source: WIPO)
In 2001, the Open Society Institute (OSI) held a meeting in Budapest, Hungary, to foster progress in making research articles in all academic fields freely available on the Internet. Those gathered produced the Budapest Open Access Initiative Declaration, one of the major milestones of the Open Access movement. (See also Budapest-Bethesda-Berlin (BBB).) The BOAI Declaration states that scholarly literature from all disciplines should be openly and freely accessible in order to disseminate to and have an impact on the world. The declaration states that scholarly journal literature can be made openly accessible through self-archiving by scholars and by scholars publishing in Open Access journals. (Source: Budapest Open Access Initiative http://www.budapestopenaccessinitiative.org/read)
Shorthand for the three major, early declarations that helped define the scope and direction of Open Access, which urged various entities to use and promote Open Access. See also: Budapest Open Access Initiative, Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities, and Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing. (Source: SPARC Open Access Newsletter, issue #77 http://legacy.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/newsletter/09-02-04.htm)
A Creative Commons license that allows others to distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon a work, even commercially, as long as they credit (attribute) the creator of the work. Creative Commons licenses implicitly grant permission for use of content based on license terms without need for the user to contact the creator first, as one would otherwise need to do for a work protected by copyright, where all rights have been reserved by the creator. It is one of the most open of the Creative Commons licenses for dissemination and use of materials. (Source: Creative Commons http://creativecommons.org/licenses/)
This Creative Commons license allows for remixes, adjustments, and derivative works, but subsequent works cannot be distributed commercially. Works must also credit (attribute) the original creator/license-holder. (Source: Creative Commons http://creativecommons.org/licenses/)
This Creative Commons license allows for the distribution and sharing of works, but no derivatives can be made, the work cannot be used commercially, and the creator/license-holder must be credited (attribution). This license is considered the most restrictive of the Creative Commons licenses. (Source: Creative Commons http://creativecommons.org/licenses/)
This Creative Commons license allows derivatives, remixes, or adjustments to the work, but the license for the new works made must be identical to the original. The creator/license-holder must get credit (attribution) for the work. (Source: Creative Commons http://creativecommons.org/licenses/)
This Creative Commons license does not allow for the changing, adjusting, or remixing of the original work; it also requires credit (attribution) to be given to the creator/license-holder. (Source: Creative Commons http://creativecommons.org/licenses/)
This Creative Commons license allows derivative works of the original to be made, but the license for the new work created must be the same as the original. In other words, any derivative made must also have a CC BY-SA license: The creator of the derivative work cannot prevent subsequent users from creating derivatives; the creator of the derivative work cannot limit the use of the new work for only non-commercial purposes. Credit (attribution) must also be given to the original creator/license-holder. (Source: Creative Commons http://creativecommons.org/licenses/)
Also known as “No Rights Reserved,” CC0 is a Creative Commons license through which scientists, educators, artists, writers, and other creators and owners of copyright- and database-protected works can waive their rights to their works and place them in the public domain, allowing others to freely build upon, enhance, and reuse the works for any purposes without restriction under copyright or database law. (Source: Creative Commons http://creativecommons.org/about/cc0)
A set of exclusive rights awarded to a copyright holder for an original and creative work of authorship fixed in a tangible medium of expression. Copyright is a limited statutory monopoly that gives a copyright holder the sole right to market a work for a limited period of time. Copyright also includes exemptions that permit a user of the copyright-protected work the right to exercise an exclusive right without authorization or royalty payment under certain conditions. (Source: Complete Copyright)
Copyright includes literary and artistic works, such as novels, poems, plays, an films; musical works; artistic works, such as drawings, paintings, photographs, and sculptures; and architectural designs. Rights related to copyright include those of performing artists in their performances, producers of phonograms in their recordings, and those of broadcasters in their radio and television programs (Source: NDLTD).
A non-profit organization that promotes the creative reuse of intellectual works, whether owned or in the public domain, through the use of licenses that define the rights copyright holders choose to retain and those uses that may be made of copyrighted works without the prior permission of the copyright holder. (Source: Complete Copyright)
Also defined as a set of copyright licenses and tools that allow authors a standardized way to keep their copyright while allowing certain uses of their work, i.e., a “some rights reserved” approach to copyright, rather than “all rights reserved.” (Source: Creative Commons)
The process of extracting useful information from online data. (Source: LibrarySpeak: A Glossary of Terms in Librarianship and Information Management)
A collection of interrelated data, usually presented in tabular form. See also Open Data.
A work based upon one or more preexisting works, such as a translation, musical arrangement, dramatization, fictionalization, motion picture version, sound recording, art reproduction, abridgment, condensation, or any other form in which a work may be recast, transformed, or adapted. ”A work consisting of editorial revisions, annotations, elaborations, or other modifications . . . is a derivative work.” (Source: U.S. Copyright Law, Title 17, Section 101)
An amendment to U.S. copyright law, passed in 1998, that sought to address copyright concerns in the digital environment. (Source: Complete Copyright) Among its many provisions, the DMCA prohibited the circumvention of digital rights management (DRM) technologies that control access to copyrighted works. Additionally, the DMCA implemented two 1996 World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) treaties: The WIPO Copyright Treaty and the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty.
A persistent alphanumeric identifier given to digital objects, commonly articles in scholarly journals, that ensures access to the object regardless of changes to its location (e.g., URL) or metadata.
A type of content management system that stores, manages, and preserves digital content so that it can later be searched and retrieved, supporting research and learning. A digital repository can be subject- or institution-specific. (Source: JISC.ac.uk)
Also known as DRM, this class of technologies is used to track, limit, and control uses of digital items. The goal for DRM technologies is to prevent copyright infringement of digital content, restricting the ability to make copies of the content, and making it difficult for DRM-protected content to be shared over computer or telecommunication networks. (Source: Encyclopedia Britannica http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1055407/digital-rights-management-DRM/)
A comprehensive online directory of Open Access scientific and scholarly journals. The directory aims to increase the visibility and ease of use of Open Access journals, thereby promoting their increased usage and impact. (Source: DOAJ)
In the context of Open Access, double-dipping occurs when a journal has an article processing charge (APC) for publishing an author’s work, as well as requiring payment (usually through a subscription fee) by the potential user of the work. This model makes the institution or author pay twice to access the work. (Source: Open Access Oxford http://openaccess.ox.ac.uk/glossary/)
An electronic thesis or dissertation that can be accessed via the Internet in full or partial text. Many ETDs are published under Open Access principles. (Source: NDLTD)
A concept defined in section 107 of the U.S. copyright law that allows a user to exercise an exclusive right in certain circumstances without the prior authorization of the copyright holder and without paying a royalty or permission fee. Use of copyrighted materials in face-to-face teaching in classroom settings, such as readings or displays, is an example of fair use. (Source: Complete Copyright)
Names of places that are applied to particular products (for example, Champagne). Those products have characteristics closely identified with their geographical place of origin. (Source: WIPO)
Open Access journals that are available to their readers free-of-charge from the moment of publication, without embargo or restriction. Authors may or may not pay (“author fee”) to have their articles published in Gold OA journals. (Source: Sherpa)
Gratis OA is Open Access that is free of price barriers but not permission barriers, so it allows for free online access to works but not reuse, republication, or remixing of the original work. Also known as “Weak” Open Access. (Source: SPARC http://www.sparc.arl.org/resource/gratis-and-libre-open-access
In Green OA, Open Access takes place at the repository level, with journal policy allowing authors to archive pre-print and post-print versions of their articles. (Source: Sherpa) Contrast with Gold OA where journals provide Open Access to articles at the moment of publication.
Some traditional journals offer an option for authors to make their individual articles freely accessible to anyone worldwide, for an additional fee. Other articles in the journal remain accessible only through subscription. (Source: Scholarly Publishing at MIT Libraries – http://libraries.mit.edu/sites/scholarly/hybrid-journals/)
The average number of times articles from a scholarly journal published in the past two years have been cited in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR). (Source: ULS – pitt.libguides, Citation Searching and Bibliometric Measures).
Also, more generally, any estimate or statistics derived from citations that indicate the importance or popularity of a scholarly journal. See also Alternative metrics.
Intellectual property that includes inventions, patents, trademarks, industrial designs, and geographic indications of source. (Source: NDLTD).
An online database or archive that provides access to digital collections, such as electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs), preprints, or faculty scholarship, and provides associated metadata regarding the documents. Also, a digital repository designed to collect the intellectual output of a particular institution or university. (Source: NDLTD)
Answers to common questions about intellectual properties that have been asked at the University of Pittsburgh: http://www.ogc.pitt.edu/publications/IP_Facts_Sheet.pdf.
Many academic libraries are now beginning to act as publishers for scholarly works produced in their institutions and elsewhere. In some cases, the library works with the university scholarly press to publish works. In other cases, the library publishes works independently or separately from the academic press. This practice has come about due to the popularity of the Internet, social media, and the Open Source and Open Access movements. (Source: Library Publishing Coalition http://www.educopia.org/programs/lpc)
“Strong OA” free of (at least some) permission barriers as well as price barriers to Open Access content. (Source: SPARC http://www.sparc.arl.org/resource/gratis-and-libre-open-access) Libre OA allows for further reuse, republication, and remix rights that are not allowed with Gratis OA. (Source: Eprints http://openaccess.eprints.org/index.php?/archives/862-Gratis-Open-Access-Vs.-Libre-Open-Access.html)
A graphic representation or symbol of a company name, trademark, abbreviation, etc., often uniquely designed for ready recognition. (Source: Dictionary.com)
A handwritten document, an unpublished document, or an author’s draft of a book, article, or other work submitted for publication. (Source: Society of American Archivists glossary)
Data about data, i.e., information (or data) that describes and provides information about other data. Metadata is used to describe and provide access to information resources, especially Internet sites, electronic documents, and digital objects. (Source: LibrarySpeak)
The collecting of metadata from a digital object, collection, or repository. The harvested metadata is then made available in a searchable databank, data store, or data repository. The digital objects themselves are not harvested; rather, the information or data about the digital objects is collected and made searchable. This process is used by the Open Archives Initiative and is required under the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH). (Source: Open Archives Forum Glossary http://www.oaforum.org/tutorial/english/page6.htm#section16)
The NIH Public Access Policy ensures that the public has access to the published results of NIH-funded research. It requires scientists to submit final peer-reviewed journal manuscripts that arise from NIH funds to the digital archive, PubMed Central. The Policy requires that these final peer-reviewed manuscripts be accessible to the public on PubMed Central to help advance science and improve human health. (Source: National Institutes of Health Public Access Page)
Describes a family of copyright licensing policies under which copyright owners make their works available publicly, without access being limited to subscribers or purchasers of the material, and typically in online databases. Disseminating information or publishing under Open Access principles means that access to the results of research is provided freely, immediately, and digitally, as is the right to use and re-use those results as needed. (Source: Open Access webpage at Pitt)
Supplies a common framework to web communities that allows them to gain access to content in a standard manner by means of metadata harvesting. (Source: DOAJ)
OAI-PMH provides a relatively standardized method for harvesting information (metadata) about digital objects, collections, or repositories. This protocol is used in order to facilitate interoperability and metadata sharing between repositories. Creators of digital objects or collections use this mechanism to provide information or data about their repositories to others. These other entities then employ the protocol to harvest metadata about digital objects and collections. (Source: Open Archives Initiative http://www.openarchives.org/pmh/)
Data that is free for anyone to use, reuse, and redistribute, subject only to (at most) the requirement to attribute and share-alike. (Source: http://opendefinition.org/okd/)
A social movement, begun by computer programmers, that rejects secrecy and centralized control of creative work in favor of decentralization, transparency, and unrestricted (“open”) sharing of information. Source refers to the human-readable source code of computer programs, as opposed to the compiled computer programming language instructions, or object code, that run on computers but cannot be easily understood or modified by people. Contrast with Open Access. (Source: Encyclopedia Britannica)
A project to list and categorize academic Open Access digital repositories. The aim is to provide a comprehensive and authoritative list of such repositories for users who wish to find particular archives or who wish to break down repositories by locale, content, or other measures. (Source: OpenDOAR)
The exclusive right granted by a government to an inventor to manufacture, use, or sell an invention for a certain number of years; the official document conferring this right or privilege. (Source: Dictionary.com; Merriam-Webster Dictionary)
A paywall is a financial barrier that an information provider (such as a publisher) places to restrict access and acquire revenue from an information user. When access to a website, article, or information is restricted to users who pay or subscribe to the distributor or provider of the work needed, and those who do not pay or subscribe are barred from using the resource, the user has encountered a paywall. (Source: Oxford Dictionary http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/paywall)
Also known as “refereed,” peer review is the process by which scholars in a relevant field read and evaluate papers submitted to a journal. (Source: SPARC) Peer review is employed by a profession or discipline in order to maintain standards, improve performance, and provide credibility. In academia, peer review is often used to determine a scholarly work’s suitability for publication.
Post-prints are post-publication reproductions or copies of articles that may or may not differ in appearance from the published article. Publishers often reserve for published articles their own arrangement of typesetting and formatting. Thus, often authors cannot use the publisher-generated PDF file, but must make their own PDF version for submission to a digital or institutional repository. (Source: SHERPA)
In the context of Open Access, a pre-print is a draft of an academic article or other publication before it has been submitted for peer review or other quality assurance procedures as part of the publication process. Initial and successive drafts of articles, working papers, or draft conference papers constitute pre-prints (Source: Sherpa).
A display of a work before a group larger than a family or small group of friends or in a place open to the public. (Source: Complete Copyright)
Works in the public domain are those that are not restricted by copyright [link to definition] and can be freely used and distributed without knowledge or permission from the copyright holder. Public domain works consist of works whose copyright has expired, works designated as public domain by their creators, and many works produced by the U.S. government. (Source: Complete Copyright)
Performance before a group larger than a family or small group of friends or in a place open to the public. (Source: Complete Copyright)
According to the U.S. copyright law (Title 17, United States Code, Section 110), a public performance is any screening of a videocassette, DVD, videodisc, or film which occurs outside of the home, or at any place where people are gathered who are not family members, such as in a library. Even if no admission is charged or if the screening is in a nonprofit organization or library, a public performance license is needed to show a film. (Source: Colorado State Library)
Any time you plan to show a film to the public—irrespective of the film’s format or whether or not you are charging admission—you must first seek permission to do so from the film’s copyright holder(s). This permission comes in the form of a license from the rights holder called a PPR (Public Performance Rights) license. (Source: libguides.lib.umt.edu/MediaResources – Showing Media Outside Classes (PPR))
Part of the U.S. National Institute of Health’s National Library of Medicine, PubMed Central is an online archive of life sciences and biomedical journals that is freely accessible due to the NIH Public Access Policy. This policy requires scientists to submit final peer-reviewed journal manuscripts that arise from NIH-funded projects to PubMed Central. These final peer-reviewed manuscripts are made accessible to the public via PubMed Central to help advance science and improve human health. (Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/about/intro/)
In journal publishing, quality control refers to the peer-review process or other means of exerting editorial quality and validty of research articles. (Source: DOAJ)
Also known as “peer review,” this is the process by which scholars read and evaluate papers submitted for publication (e.g., to a scholarly journal) or presentation (e.g., to a scholarly conference). (Source: Oxford English Dictionary http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/139736?rskey=z01ffe&result=1&isAdvanced=false#eid) Refereeing is employed by a profession or discipline in order to maintain standards, improve performance, and provide credibility. In academia, peer review is often used to determine a scholarly work’s suitability for publication.
Articles that describe the fruits of research and that authors give to the world for the sake of inquiry and knowledge without expectation of payment. Such articles are typically presented in peer-reviewed scholarly journals and conference proceedings. (Resource: Scholarly Publishing @ MIT Libraries)
The creation, transformation, dissemination, and preservation of knowledge related to teaching, research, and scholarly endeavors; the process of academics, scholars and researchers sharing and publishing their research findings so that they are available to the wider academic community. (Source: Wikipedia)
Traditionally, scholarly communication has been done through publishing in scholarly journals, writing books, and presenting at scholarly conferences. Contemporarily, scholarly communication happens through these means as well as through blogs, wikis, social media, discussion forums, audio and video recordings, and other media.
A journal that reports primary results of research or overviews of research results to a scholarly community. (Source: Directory of Open Access Journals)
A distinctive sign which identifies certain products or services as those produced or provided by a specific person, enterprise or a group of persons/enterprises allowing the consumer to distinguish them from goods or services of others. (Source: WIPO)
This is a term used in Creative Commons [link to definition] licensing in which the creator or license-holder permits derivative works to be made, but the derivative must adhere to the same licensing terms as the original work. For example, a work licensed as CC BY- SA [link to definition] would mean that others could remix, tweak, and build upon the original work, as long as they credit the creator and license their new creations under the identical terms. (Source: Creative Commons http://creativecommons.org/characteristic/sa?lang=en)
An amendment to the U.S. Copyright Law that extended the term of copyright protection by twenty years (Source: Complete Copyright). This means that the term of copyright extends to the life of the author plus 70 years for individual authors and 95 years for corporate “creators.” The amendement applies to all works under copyright on the bill’s effective data, as well as to all future works. (Source: ALA)
“Strong” Open Access (also known as Libre Open Access) is a term used to refer to the removal of price barriers and at least some permission barriers to a work. Compare with “Weak” Open Access. (Source: Peter Suber http://legacy.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/2008/04/strong-and-weak-oa.html)
TEACH redefines the terms and conditions on which accredited, nonprofit educational institutions throughout the U.S. may use copyright protected materials in distance education – including on websites and by other digital means – without permission from the copyright owner and without payment of royalties. (Source: ALA)
A trade secret is a form of intellectual property that protects company “know-how,” such as the process or recipe used to create or manufacture a product. Intellectual property law protects a trade secret from competitors. For example, the formula for the soft drink Pepsi constitutes a trade secret. (Source: Complete Copyright)
A form of intellectual property that protects logos, slogans, and other marks associated with a particular product. (Source: Complete Copyright)
“Weak” Open Access (also known as Gratis Open Access), is a term used to refer to the removal of price barriers to a work. Compare with “Strong” Open Access. (Source: Peter Suber http://legacy.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/2008/04/strong-and-weak-oa.html)
The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is an organization that works toward the development of an effective international intellectual property (IP) system. It is an agency of the United Nations. WIPO aims to harmonize IP legislation among member countries, engages in international IP agreements, promotes services to protect IP internationally, and resolve international IP disputes, among other efforts. (Source: WIPO http://www.wipo.int/about-wipo/en/)