Howard Pyle was born in Wilmington, Delaware on March 5, 1853. His family settled in the Brandywine Valley after arriving from England as Quaker immigrants in 1682. At the time of Pyle's birth, Wilmington was a small town beginning to grow into a city. The Pyle home was in the country just outside of town next to a rich garden filled with flowers, fruit trees, vines, a greenhouse and a summerhouse. Books and pictures filled the home and the fireplace in the library, which contributed to its warm and inviting atmosphere. These surroundings nurtured Pyle's young imagination. The images of his idyllic childhood in Wilmington would stay with Pyle all of his life. He would return to them again and again in his illustrations and writings such as in the descriptions of the gardens in The Garden Behind the Moon, The Story of Jack Ballister's Fortunes, and in some of the descriptive passages in his Arthurian books (Nesbitt 1966, 9).
According to Pyle, his mother brightened his childhood with "an illuminating joyfulness in beautiful things" (Agosta 1987, 4). She introduced him to the Grimm fairy tales, stories from the Arabian Nights, Slovenly Peter, A Wonder Book and Tanglewood Tales, Robinson Crusoe, A Midsummer Night's Dream, and Ritson's collection of ballads about Robin Hood. He spent hours reading illustrated novels by Dickens, Thackeray, Bunyan, and Dafoe and enjoying the illustrations by Thomas Bewick, Felix Octavius Darley, and John Tenniel in Punch. His mother also exposed him to important British artists and illustrators of the 1860's including: Arthur Boyd Houghton, Charles Keene, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Holman Hunt, and Edward Burne-Jones. Very early in life, Pyle began associating pictures with texts. According to Henry Pitz, "the concept of the picture springing from literary ideas was ingrained in him from the start" (Pitz 1969, 40).
Pyle attended the Friends' School and later a school conducted by Thomas Clarkson Taylor. But, as Pyle himself later recalled, "he spent his time largely in scrawling drawings on his slate and in his books" (Pitz 1969, 42). Realizing their son's lack of interest in studying, the Pyle's gave up their idea of sending Howard to college and instead his mother encouraged him to study art. At sixteen he began three years of daily commutes to Philadelphia in order to study under the Belgian artist Van der Weilen. These classes would be the only systematic training in art that Pyle would receive and provided a solid foundation in the technique of drawing.
After three years of study, Pyle set up a studio at home in Wilmington and began helping his father in the leather business while trying to decide upon a career. During the next five years, he continued to draw and experiment with writing in his spare time. He read widely and discovered the writer William Dean Howells from Their Wedding Journey and A Chance Acquaintance and attempted to emulate his writing style. At the end of the five years, in the spring of 1876, Pyle took a trip to Chincoteague Island off the coast of Virginia to observe the annual roundup of wild ponies. He took notes on everything he saw and made several sketches for a possible article.
Back in Wilmington he continued working on his sketches and notes from the trip. At the same time he completed a set of verses about a magic pill and submitted them along with illustrations to Scribner's Monthly (July 1876). He received his first letter of acceptance and a check. He then submitted a fairy tale for children to St. Nicholas (February 1877), the most important magazine for children of that time, and again received a check in the mail. His confidence raised, Pyle wrote the Chincoteague article and submitted it with eleven drawings to Scribner's Monthly (April 1877). This too was accepted. These successes prompted Pyle's father to stop by the Scribner office while in New York on business. The elder Pyle met with Roswell Smith, the editor, who enthusiastically suggested Mr. Pyle send his talented son to New York to write and illustrate for magazines.
Pyle left Wilmington for New York in October 1876. Work for Scribner's was not as forthcoming as expected and Pyle had to make connections with other publishers as well. Mary Mapes Dodge, editor of St. Nicholas, was "rapidly becoming famous as a primary influence in the improvement of children's literature in the United States" (Nesbitt 1966, 14). She encouraged Pyle to submit writings and drawings to the magazine. Pyle's first studio work in New York was several animal fables and illustrations for St. Nicholas magazine.
After nearly a year in New York, Mrs. Dodge sent Pyle to the engraving house so he could adjust his drawing style for better reproduction. He also enrolled in a sketching class at the Art Students' League to improve his drawing of the human figure. Pyle began having doubts about his ability in his chosen career and thought for a while that he should concentrate on being an author instead. But by early 1877 all such thoughts had vanished. He had met Charles Parsons, art director at Harper and Brothers, the largest publisher in the country. Parsons had "selected and trained a group of young illustrators, among them Edwin Austin Abbey, Arthur Burdett Frost, and Charles Stanley Reinhart, who were improving the art of illustration to a degree of excellence hitherto unknown in America" (Nesbitt 1966, 15). According to Agosta, "in many ways, Pyle's association with the Harpers marked the real start of his professional career" (Agosta 1987, 7).
Parsons encouraged Pyle to submit ideas and preliminary sketches to Harper's but the final products were redrawn by an experienced house illustrator before being engraved. Pyle studied and absorbed everything he saw at Harper's and in late 1877 asked Parsons to allow him to finish a sketch himself entitled "A Wreck in the Offing." Parsons agreed. Pyle worked on the sketch for over six weeks until he was literally down to his last nickel and was forced to submit the drawing. Pyle was aware that Parsons' decision could very well decide his future as an illustrator; "I think it was not until I stood in the awful presence of the art director himself that I realized how this might be the turning point of my life -" (Pitz 1969, 60). Parsons not only accepted the illustration but published it as a double-page spread in Harper's Weekly on March 9, 1878.
At twenty-five, Pyle was now in demand as an illustrator. He had as much work as he could handle and he continued to grow in the esteem of his peers. He developed friendships with many young artists of his day, especially Winslow Homer, Edwin Abbey, Charles Reinhart, and Arthur Frost. But by late 1879, his friends began to move away from New York. Pyle realized he had accomplished everything he had hoped in New York and his thoughts turned to his home in Wilmington. He returned to his studio in his parents' home with the assurance of Charles Parsons that Harper's would send him enough work to keep him fully occupied.
In 1880 Pyle became engaged to Anne Poole and in April of 1881 they were married. He continued to be in constant demand as an illustrator, both for books and articles by others and for his own illustrated articles. But Pyle did not forget his interest in writing for children, and in 1883, The Merry Adventures of Robin Hood of Great Renown in Nottinghamshire was published.
According to Nesbitt, "it is considered by many the most beautiful example of Pyle's twin talents as author-illustrator. Definitely its publication established him as one of America's foremost writers and illustrators for children" (Nesbitt 1966, 18).
Stories previously published in Harper's Young People became collections of original fairy tales; Pepper & Salt, or Seasonings for Young Folks appeared in 1886, The Wonder Clock followed in 1888, and his last collection, Twilight Land, in 1895. His only book-length fairy tale, The Garden Behind the Moon, was also published in 1895. Pyle used his interest in history to write historical fiction for children. Otto of the Silver Hand appeared in 1888 and Men of Iron in 1892, both stories set in the Middle Ages.
Pyle's masterpiece on medieval times, his four-volume retelling of the adventures of King Arthur and his knights, appeared over a seven-year period between 1903 and 1910: The Story of King Arthur and His Knights in 1903, The Story of the Champions of the Round Table in 1905, The Story of Sir Launcelot and His Companions in 1907, and The Story of the Grail and the Passing of Arthur in 1910.
Pyle and his family spent many summers near the ocean at Rehoboth Beach, Delaware, where they were immersed in local legends of pirates and buried treasure. Many of Pyle's pirate pictures were painted during these summers or painted from sketches made at the beach. In 1889 Pyle and his wife visited Jamaica so that "he might authenticate his pirate tales and illustrations" (Agosta 1987, 12). According to Nesbitt, "Many of his illustrations and paintings of pirates are masterpieces and brought him tremendous acclaim" (Nesbitt 1966, 22). (After Pyle's' death, Merle Johnson collected many of Pyle's articles, stories, and illustrations of pirates and published them as Howard Pyle's Book of Pirates in 1921.)
In the fall of 1894, at the age of forty-one, Pyle started his teaching career with a class in illustration at the Drexel Institute of Arts and Sciences in Philadelphia. He had become aware of the lack of adequate training for illustrators and deplored the "art school routine of his day..as being almost entirely an imitative exercise which seldom actively involved the imagination" (Pitz 1969, 94). Pyle's classes were extremely successful and in 1898, with the help of the Drexel Institute, he started a summer class at Chadd's Ford, Pennsylvania in order to concentrate on a handful of talented students. After two summers with Drexel students at Chadd's Ford, Pyle resigned from Drexel in order to open his own art school in Wilmington.
The Howard Pyle School of Art started classes in 1900 with twelve students selected from hundreds of applicants from all over the country. Pyle wrote in a letter to the art editor at Harper's that he would not accept students "deficient in any of the following criteria: first of all, imagination; secondly, artistic ability; thirdly, color and drawing" (Agosta 1987, 18). Pyle resumed the summer school at Chadd's Ford in 1901 in order to provide his students the opportunity to paint in natural light. "His students worked hard, but played too, many recalling these summer months as Edenic" (Agosta 1987, 18). There were no regular summer classes after 1903 but Pyle and his students frequently returned to Chadd's Ford to sketch, paint, and to play. Pyle stopped teaching formal classes in 1905 but continued to offer criticism privately to former students and established artists.
Pyle's students from Chadd's Ford and Wilmington include an impressive array of talented artists including: Edward Austin Abbey, Maxfield Parrish, Newell Convers Wyeth, Elizabeth Shippen Green, Jessie Willcox Smith, Thornton Oakley, Violet Oakley, Margaret Hinchman, Harvey Dunn, Stanley Arthurs, Frank Schoonover, William J. Aylward, and Walter Everett. Pyle expressed his feelings about teaching in a letter to the President of Drexel, "I know of no better legacy a man can leave to the world than that he had aided others to labour at an art so beautiful as that to which I have devoted my life" (Nesbitt 1966, 24). Pyle's legacy is known as the Brandywine Tradition.
In 1905 Pyle became interested in mural painting which was popular at the turn of the century for decorating new public buildings. He began by painting seven panels of various sizes in his own home. His first mural commission, The Battle of Nashville for the governor's reception room in the Minnesota State Capitol building, was completed in 1906. The architect, Cass Gilbert, was so pleased with this mural that he asked Pyle to design an even larger mural for the new Essex County Courthouse in Newark, New Jersey. The Landing of Cartaret was completed in 1907. Pyle's most ambitious mural project was for the Hudson County Courthouse in Jersey City, New Jersey, and included five panels of historical subjects: Life in an Old Dutch Town, Hendryk Hudson and the Half-Moon, Peter Stuyvesant and the English Fleet, Dutch Soldier, and English Soldier. After its completion in 1910, Pyle decided his technique could benefit from a trip to Italy to study the great masters of mural design.
Pyle had always steadfastly avoided any thought of visiting Europe even though many of his illustrations were of European scenes. Although himself influenced by such artists as Durer, Bergkmair, Cramach and others of the German and Renaissance Italian schools (Agosta 1987, 14), Pyle held that "America had been too dependent upon European methods and must develop her own indigenous art" (Nesbitt 1966, 24). But Pyle's intense interest in mural painting overcame his previous prejudice and in November of 1910 he sailed for Italy.
Not in the best of health when he left home, Pyle was ill on most of the trip. He did not like Rome and was unhappy there. When again well enough to travel, he and his wife went to Florence. He wrote in a letter, "I like Florence very much...the old masters certainly were glorious painters and I take back all that I ever said against them...in color they are so remarkable that I do not see how any human being painted as they did" (Pitz 1969, 159) and "I kept thinking of my pupils and wishing that they could see these pictures" (Agosta 1987, 22). Pyle was finally able to admit that European art might have something to teach American artists and illustrators.
Pyle also visited Genoa and Siena but failing health sent him back to Florence. He died of Bright's disease, a serious infection of the kidneys, on November 9, 1911, almost a year after sailing from New York. According to Agosta, "His burial in foreign soil was an ironic coda to the life of a man celebrated for his enduring contributions to American children's literature, devoted to the creation of a characteristic American art, and recognized as the premier illustrator and teacher in what has come to be called 'the Golden Age of American Illustration'" (Agosta 1987, 23).
Agosta, Lucien L. Howard Pyle. Boston: Twayne, 1987.
Nesbitt, Elizabeth. Howard Pyle. London: Bodley Head, 1966.
Pitz, Henry C. The Brandywine Tradition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1969.
Part II Bibliography of Secondary Sources
Abbott, Charles D. Howard Pyle: A Chronicle. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1925.
Agosta, Lucien L. Howard Pyle. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1987.
Elzea, Rowland, et al. Howard Pyle: Diversity in Depth. Wilmington, Del.: Delaware Art Museum, 1973.
Harper, Joseph Henry. The House of Harper: A Century of Publishing in Franklin Square. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1912.
Hawthorne, Hildegard. "Howard Pyle, Maker of Pictures and Stories." St. Nicholas (May-October 1915).
Hawthorne, Julian. "Howard Pyle, Illustrator." Pearson's Magazine September 1907. **HILLMAN**
Jordan, Alice M. "Children's Classics." The Horn Book Magazine, v.23 (Jan./Feb. 1947): p.9-20.
Jordan, Alice M. From Rollo to Tom Sawyer. Boston: Horn Book, 1948. (Note: this is a book published by Horn Book, not an article from the Magazine)
Kelly, Eric. "Out of the dark ages." In The Three Owls, Third Book. Anne Carroll Moore. New York: Coward-McCann, 1931.
Kirkus, Virginia. "Howard Pyle, a Backward Glance." The Horn Book Magazine, v.5:no.4 (1929 November): 37-39.
Koerner, W. H. D. "Howard Pyle." New Amstel Magazine, November 1911.
Lawson, Robert. "Howard Pyle and his times." In Illustrators of Children's Books, 1744-1945, Bertha E. Mahony, Louise P. Latimer, and Beulah Folmsby. Boston: The Horn Book, 1947.
Lehmann-Haupt, Hellmut. The Book In America: A History Of The Making And Selling Of Books In The United States. New York: R. R. Bowker Company, 1951.
Lunt, Dudley. "The Howard Pyle school of art." Delaware History, March 1953. ***HILLMAN***
Lykes, Richard W. "Howard Pyle: Teacher of illustration." Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, July 1956.
Meigs, Cornelia, et al. A Critical History Of Children's Literature. London: The Macmillan Company, 1969.
Nesbitt, Elizabeth. Howard Pyle. London: The Bodley Head, 1966.
Patterson, Ruth. The Influence Of Howard Pyle On American Illustration. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press for the Association of College and Research Libraries, 1955.
Pennell, Joseph. Pen Drawings And Pen Draughtsmen: Their Work And Their Methods. London and New York: Macmillan and Company, 1889.
Pitz, Henry C. The Brandywine Tradition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1969.
Pitz, Henry C. "Howard Pyle: American illustrator." American Artist, Decemer 1951.
Pitz, Henry C. Howard Pyle: Writer, Illustrator, Founder of the Brandywine School. New York: Bramhall House, 1965.
Pitz, Henry C. Illustrating Children's Books - History, Technique, Production. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications, 1963.
Pyle, Howard. Howard Pyle. With an introduction by Rowland Elzea. New York: Peacock Press, 1975.
Pyle, Howard. "When I was a boy." Woman's Home Companion, April 1912.
Russell, Jean. "Howard Pyle, his contribution to children's literature." Ph.D. diss., Carnegie Institute of Technology, Carnegie Library School, Pittsburgh, 1952.
Schoonover, Frank E. "Howard Pyle." Art and Progress, October 1915.
Trimble, Jessie. "The founder of an American school of art." The Outlook, 23 February 1907.
Vandercook, John W. "Howard Pyle." The Mentor, June 1927.
Weitenkampf, Frank. American Graphic Art. New York: Macmillan, 1924.
Weitenkampf, Frank. The Illustrated Book. Cambridge: The Harvard University Press, 1938.
Wyeth, Betsy James, ed. The Wyeths: The Letters Of N. C. Wyeth, 1901-1945. Boston: Gambit, 1971.
Wyeth, N. C. "Howard Pyle as I knew him." The Mentor, June 1927.
**NOT @ PITT**
Part III Bibliography of Works Illustrated and/or Written by Howard Pyle
NOTE: Howard Pyle was an extremely prolific illustrator and writer, producing over 3,300 published illustrations and 200 texts ranging from short fables to his four-part work on King Arthur. We have included only a partial listing of his works here. For a comprehensive bibliography, please consult:
Pyle, Howard. Howard Pyle: A Record of his Illustrations and Writings. Compiled by Willard S. Morse and Gertrude Brinckle. Wilmington, Del.: The Wilmington Society of the Fine Arts, 1921. Reprint, Detroit: Singing Tree Press, 1969. Hillman: Z8719.5 .M886
Items held by the University of Pittsburgh are indicated by an asterisk (*) and are followed by the item's location and call number.
Baldwin, James. The Story of Siegfried. Illustrated by Howard Pyle. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1882.
Baldwin, James. A Story of the Golden Age. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1917.
Baldwin, James. The Story of the Golden Age. Illustrated by Howard Pyle. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1887.
Forman, Justus. The Island of Enchantment. New York and London: Harper Brothers, 1905.
Cabell, James Branch. Chivalry. Illustrated by Howard Pyle. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1909.
Cabell, James Branch. The Line of Love. Illustrated by Howard Pyle. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1905.
Cabell, James Branch. The Soul of Melicent. Illustrated by Howard Pyle. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company, 1913.
Deland, Margaret. Old Chester Tales. Illustrated by Howard Pyle. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1899.
Dibdin, Thomas Frognail. The Bibliomania. Illustrated by Howard Pyle. Boston: The Bibliophile Society, 1903.
Doyle, Arthur Conan. The Parasite. Illustrated by Howard Pyle. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1895.
Hawthorne, Nathaniel. A Wonder-book for Girls and Boys; and, Tanglewood Tales. Illustrated by Howard Pyle. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1900.
Holmes, Oliver Wendell. The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table. Illustrated by Howard Pyle. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1894.
Holmes, Oliver Wendell. Dorothy Q. Together with a Ballad of the Boston Tea Party and Grandmother's Story of Bunker Hill Battle. Illustrated by Howard Pyle. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1893.
Holmes, Oliver Wendell. The One Hoss Shay with Its Companion Poems. Illustrated by Howard Pyle. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1892.
Howard Pyle's Book of the American Spirit. Compiled by Merle Johnson. Edited by Francis J. Dowd. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1923.
Howells, William Dean. Stops of Various Quills. Illustrated by Howard Pyle. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1895.
Lodge, Henry Cabot. The Story of the Revolution. Illustrated by Howard Pyle. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1898.
Markham, Edwin. The Man with the Hoe and Other Poems. Illustrated by Howard Pyle. New York: Doubleday McClure, 1900.
Mitchell, S. Weir. Hugh Wynne. Free Quaker. Illustrated by Howard Pyle. New York: The Century Company, 1898.
Pyle, Howard. The Champions of the Round Table. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1905.
Pyle, Howard. The Champions of the Round Table. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1915.
Pyle, Howard. Empty Bottles. Middlesex, New York: Rochester Folk Art Guild, 1975.
Pyle, Howard. The Garden Behind the Moon. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1895.
Pyle, Howard. Howard Pyle's Book of Pirates. New York & London: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1921. (two copies)
Pyle, Howard. Men of Iron. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1892.
Pyle, Howard. Men of Iron. New York : Airmont, 1965.
Pyle, Howard. The Merry Adventures of Robin Hood. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1883.
Pyle, Howard. The Merry Adventures of Robin Hood. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1890.
Pyle, Howard. The Merry Adventures of Robin Hood. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1921.
Pyle, Howard. The Merry Adventures of Robin Hood. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1939.
Pyle, Howard. Otto of the Silver Hand. New York : Dover Publications, 1967. Original edition, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1888.
Pyle, Howard. Pepper & Salt. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1885.
Pyle, Howard. Pepper & Salt. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1885. Reprint by Ann Arbor: University Microforms, Inc., 1966.
Pyle, Howard. Some Merry Adventures of Robin Hood. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1958.
Pyle, Howard. The Story of Jack Ballister's Fortunes. New York: Century, 1920.
Pyle, Howard. The Story of Sir Launcelot. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1911.
Pyle, Howard. The Story of Sir Launcelot. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1916.
Pyle, Howard. The Story of Sir Launcelot. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1927.
Pyle, Howard. Story of the Grail. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1916.
Pyle, Howard. Twilight Land. New York & London: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1922.
Pyle, Howard. The Within the Capes. Chicago: Hill, 1901.
Pyle, Howard. The Wonder Clock. New York & London: Harper & Brothers, 1906.
Pyle, Howard. The Wonder Clock. New York & London: Harper & Brothers, 1918.
Pyle, Howard. Some Merry Adventures of Robin Hood of Great Renown in Nottinghamshire. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1902.
The Wonder Clock. New York : Dover Publications, 1965. Original edition, New York: Harper and Brothers, 1888.
Stolen Treasure. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1907.
The Story of the Grail and the Passing of Arthur. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1910.
The Story of Jack Ballister's Fortunes. New York: The Century Company, 1895.
The Story of King Arthur and His Knights. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1903.
The Story of Sir Launcelot and His Companions. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1907.
Tennyson, Alfred. The Lady of Shalott. Illustrated by Howard Pyle. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1881.
Twain, Mark. Saint Joan of Arc. Illustrated by Howard Pyle. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1919.
Wilson, Woodrow. George Washington. Illustrated by Howard Pyle. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1896.
Yankee Doodle. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1881.
Part IV Miscellaneous Items
The Century Magazine, 1893-1902
Collier's Weekly, 1898-1906
Harper's Bazaar, 1882-1891
Harper's Monthly Magazine, 1901-1912
Harper's New Monthly Magazine, 1878-1900
Harper's Round Table, 1896-1897
Harper's Weekly, 1877-1907
Harper's Young People, 1880-1894
Scribner's Magazine, 1887-1903
Scribner's Monthly, 1876-1878
St. Nicholas, 1877-1903
Murals by Howard Pyle
The Battle of Nashville. State Capitol, Minnesota, 1906.
[NOTES: Part 4 - ILLUSTRATIONS TO INCLUDE ON ENR WEB PAGE The Merry Adventures of Robin Hood of Great Renown in Nottinghamshire ENR: 398.22 P996m "The Merry Friar carrieth Robin across the Water" - opposite title page ""Stout Robin hath a narrow escape" - page 242 Otto of the Silver Hand - ENR: Shelved alphabetically "Poor Brother John came forward and took the boy's hand" - page 57 "The next moment they were hanging in mid-air" - page 135 Pepper and Salt - ENR: Shelved alphabetically No title, opposite title page Xeroxes of illustrations were handed in with the disk. Illustrations from The Lady of Shalott by Alfred Lord Tennyson "The Lady of Shalott" http://rodent.lib.rochester.edu/camelot/images/pylels.htm "The Lady of Shalott Weaving" http://rodent.lib.rochester.edu/camelot.pylelsw.htm "Launcelot" http://rodent.lib.rochester.edu/camelot/images/pylelsla.htm]
WRITINGS ABOUT PYLE FOUND IN THE INFORMATION SCIENCE LIBRARY
Elzea, Rowland. Howard Pyle. Toronto-New York-London: A Peacock Press/Bantam Book, 1975.
Harper, Joseph Henry. The House of Harper. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1912.
This resource guide represents the combined work of the following people: Diane Hanvill, Michelle Frisque, Beth Kean, and Elizabeth T. Mahoney.
Updated by David Frank and Laurren Kresge, July 2009.
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